Sunday, July 14, 2019

Opening paragraphs..................

      Cavalrymen remember such moments:  dust swirling behind the pack mules, regimental bugles shattering the air, horses snorting and riders' tack creaking through the ranks, their old company song rising on the wind:  "Come home, John! Don't stay long.  Come home soon to your own chick-a-biddy!"  The date was October 3, 1871.  Six hundred soldiers and twenty Tonkawa scouts had bivouacked on a lively bend of the Clear Fork of the Brazos, in a rolling, scarred prairie of grama grass, scrub oak, sage, and chaparral, about one hundred fifty miles of Fort Worth, Texas.  Now they were breaking camp, moving out in a long, snaking line through the high cutbanks and quicksand streams.  Though they did not know it at the time—the idea would have seemed preposterous—the sounding of "boots and saddle" that morning marked the beginning of the end of the Indian wars in America, of fully two hundred fifty years of bloody combat that had begun almost with the first landing of the first ship on the first fatal shore of Virginia.  The final destruction of the last of the hostile tribes would not take place for a few more years.  Time would be yet required to round them all up, or starve them out, or exterminate their sources of food, or run them to ground in shallow canyons, or kill them outright.  For the moment the question was one of hard, unalloyed will.  There had been brief spasms of official vengeance and retribution before:  J. M. Chivington's and George Armstrong Custer's savage massacres of Cheyennes in 1864 and 1868 were examples.  But in those days there was no real attempt to destroy the tribes on a larger scale, no stomach for it.  That had changed, and on October 3, the change assumed the form of an order, barked out through the lines of command to the men of the Fourth Cavalry and Eleventh Infantry, to go forth and kill Comanches.  It was the end of anything like tolerance, the beginning of the final solution.

-S. C. Gwynne,  Empire Of The Summer Moon:  Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the Most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History

thanks Rob

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